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Media Studies Thesis and Project Guidelines 2014

 

 

THE THESIS/PROJECT

 

BASIC INFORMATION:

 

All graduate students must prepare a thesis or a professional project, which must demonstrate evidence of originality, appropriate organization, clarity of purpose, critical analysis, and accuracy and completeness of documentation in some area of media studies.   The thesis or graduate project is a multiple semester endeavor that often adds as much as a year to a student's program of study. Interested students are encouraged to begin exploring ideas and working toward the thesis or project goal early in their program of study. Examples of previous students' projects/theses will be made available in the Department's thesis/project library.

Students are expected to demonstrate the ability to conduct research or produce a significant, original project in a discriminating and disciplined manner. The thesis topic should be one that will further the student’s knowledge and ability in the specialty by demonstrating skill as a researcher or media professional. The outcome should be an effort that serves as a foundation for the pursuit of independent work when the graduate program is completed.  Students who pursue the creative project option must execute a project, the scope of which is defined by the student in collaboration with a committee of three faculty members, and prepare a written document to accompany the project. The project may take the form of a production created for the broadcast or electronic media, a script for such a production, or another type of product that employs the broadcast or electronic (digital) mediaNote:  Projects must be accompanied by extensive written work that describes and supports the work (this is explained in detail later in this document).
All thesis/project students must have completed at least 18 credit hours (including MS 500, MS 501 and MS 502) and have an approved thesis/project proposal before registering for MS 698/699 (Thesis/Project).  The research, writing, and evaluation process for this approved proposal may take a full semester or more. Students will conduct the research and write the proposal independently, working with the advice and guidance of their academic advisor or proposed thesis/project advisor. Typically the proposal is written outside of a class, as a not-for credit project. (Beginning in the fall 2010 semester, all new students will be required to take MS 502 – Graduate Research and Writing.  Students will have the opportunity to write sample proposals in the course.)  Thesis/Project proposals are presented to and evaluated by the Department thesis/project Proposal committee in a meeting with the student convened for that purpose.


NOTE:  STUDENTS WHO WISH TO REGISTER FOR THESIS/PROJECT I IN THE SPRING 2014 SEMESTER MUST HAVE THEIR PROPOSALS SUBMITTED BY NOVEMBER 5, 2013.  

 

STUDENTS WHO WISH TO REGISTER FOR THESIS/PROJECT I IN THE FALL 2014 SEMESTER OR SUMMER 2014 TERM MUST HAVE THEIR PROPOSALS SUBMITTED BY APRIL 1, 2014.

 

NEXT STEPS (AFTER YOUR PROPOSAL HAS BEEN APPROVED AND YOU HAVE REGISTERED FOR THESIS/PROJECT I):

 
Students must maintain good progress (defined by the thesis/project advisor in consultation with the student) on the thesis/project during each semester they are enrolled in MS 698 (Thesis/Project I) or 699 (Thesis/Project II) and this will be reflected in a grade of IP (In Progress, Passing) on the student's semester grade report. Students who receive a grade of U, unsatisfactory, may not continue on their current thesis/project.   Normally in such cases students should switch to a different option (thesis or project) and begin the proposal process again.  Under special circumstances, with the support of a faculty advisor, students may appeal this rule and may be allowed to continue in their original track. 
 
Please read carefully:  All graduate students are expected to be enrolled in consecutive regular semesters (i.e., fall and spring semesters) until the degree program is completed and the degree is awarded.  Students who have completed Thesis/Project II for 3 credits must continuously register for Thesis/Project II for 1 credit until the degree is awarded.  The graduate student who is not enrolled will not be permitted to use WVSU facilities or equipment.  Students who wish to use WVSU facilities or equipment during the summer, must be registered for Thesis/Project I or II during the summer term.  Students must be registered during the semester they wish to graduate.  Students who cannot enroll in a given semester must apply for a leave of absence in order to remain in good standing. A student who does not return to enrolled status at the end of an approved period of leave is no longer considered to be pursuing the degree. 
 
A student who leaves the university without obtaining a formal leave of absence from graduate study is not automatically readmitted. The recommendation of the program and the approval of the college dean, based on the academic merits of the student's request, are required. If readmitted, the student will be subject to all of the current requirements for the degree in effect at the time of readmission. 
 
Students enrolled in the thesis/project courses are expected to meet regularly with their thesis project director during the course of the semester.  At a minimum, there should be a mid-semester review of the work completed and an “end of the semester” review as well.  Students are encouraged to involve all members of their committee at all stages of the process and to regularly send them completed drafts of chapters or scripts, DVDs of edited or unedited video and or other materials that demonstrate progress towards completion.
 
The student's thesis/project committee must approve all finished theses and projects before being deposited with the Media Studies Graduate Coordinator.  It is also recommended that students submit a completed draft to the Graduate Coordinator so that it can be reviewed for format errors.  When the committee approves the work, each faculty member will indicate so by signing the cover page of a new, clean copy or the approval page (thesis) or an approval form to be included with the project. 
 

This signed copy of the thesis or the project along with its approval sheet should be deposited in the Media Studies Graduate Coordinator's office. Finished, signed, approved theses and projects are due in the Media Studies Graduate Coordinator's office by the 12th week of the semester (specific deadlines will be announced each semester).  Graduate students must also provide the office with an electronic version of their written thesis on CD-ROM, in MS-Word and PDF formats).

 

Thesis and project presentations will be scheduled in the final weeks of each semester; students are required to present and defend their work. Relevant procedures and a set of deadlines will be announced each semester. A final copy of the thesis or project with all approval signatures, after any necessary revisions, must be deposited in the Department's library. This should be a publication/presentation ready document or medium, conforming to all of the usual expectations of library-deposited thesis or multi-media documents available in the major style guides. For theses, the title page should have the signatures of advisor, members of the committee, and Media Studies Graduate Coordinator.  Projects should include the names and titles of the advisor, committee members, and the Media Studies Graduate Coordinator at the end or beginning of the project (i.e. credits).

 

COMPLETING YOUR THESIS/PROJECT:

 

Basic Deadlines:


1)   Your thesis/project director must notify the Media Studies Graduate Coordinator that your thesis/project is ready for defense prior to your defense being scheduled. 

2)  Your committee must receive a copy of your final thesis/project prior to your defense being scheduled. 

3)  Your defense must be scheduled prior to:

 

April 26 for May 2014 graduates


4)  Your final project/thesis (with changes and corrections) must be completed and filed in the Department Office by:  

 

May 3, 2014 for May 2014 graduates

Guidelines for Film/Video Projects
 
Students wishing to produce a film or video for their culminating creative project theses are expected to demonstrate a high degree of technical and aesthetic achievement.  Although there is no prescribed length for these major artistic projects, the following should be used as guidelines:
 
For live-action (narrative or documentary) projects, 15-35 minutes.  Note:  15-20 minute films/videos tend to be more acceptable for festivals.  Students wishing to produce film/videos LONGER than 35 minutes must get special permission from the Graduate Studies Coordinator.
 
For animation projects:  5-15 minutes.
 
ALL Film/Video projects proposals must include the following 
 

1.  Title page: Did you format this correctly?

2.  Table of Contents: Did you check this to make sure it is complete?

3.  Abstract: Did you tell exactly what the film project is in a clear, concise way? Title of film? Length of film? Genre of film? Brief description of film?

4.  Synopsis/Summary: Did you give detailed information about the film’s subject matter/story? Are paragraphs short and easy to read? 

5.  Uniqueness: Did you tell how your project is a unique contribution to the film world? 

6.  Production Concept: Did you explain your vision for the film? Did you provide a description of the aesthetic feel? Did you include elements especially important to your project – historical research? Interviews? Did you give an overview about how you hope to achieve this concept?

7.  Methodology:

Camera/Editing: Did you tell the camera models that will be used and why? Did you tell which editing software will be used and why? 

Crew:  Did you tell where you will find your crew (other graduate students, professionals, faculty)? Did you list known crew members (with brief bios)?

Cast: Did you tell where you will find your actors (other graduate students, professionals, faculty)? Did you tell who will make casting decisions?  Did you list any actors already chosen (with brief bios)?

Lighting:  Did you discuss lighting needs? Special concerns? Availability of equipment?

Sound: Did you discuss your use of microphones, sound effects, other sound issues? 

Wardrobe/Make-up: Did you discuss plans for wardrobe and make-up? Special needs?

Music: Did you list and describe the music will you use? Did you indicate whether or not you have permission of the artist? 

Locales: Did you list and describe your primary shooting locales? Did you discuss your access to these locales and whether or not you will need to seek permission? Did you indicate whether the filming must take place during a specific season or time of day? 

8. Influences: Did you briefly discuss the history of your film’s genre and mention important examples within the genre? Did you discuss at least three films and how they will be influential to this project? Did you include several well thought out paragraphs for each of these films detailing the exact elements that were influential to you?

9.  Literature Review: Did you discuss at least three scholarly articles and/or books and how the author’s philosophical viewpoints will be influential to this project? Did you point out ways in which your project might deviate from the wisdom of the films or scholarship you mention and why? Did you formulate an argument that defends the way you will make your film? 

10.  Timetable: Did you provide a realistic and fairly detailed timetable for your project? 

11.  Budget: Did you provide a realistic and fairly detailed budget for your project? Did you distinguish between actual costs and “in-kind” costs?

12.  Marketing Plan: Did you discuss your marketing plan, your target audience, your plans for promotion? Did you tell whether the film will have a trailer? Did you explain how the film will be distributed once completed? 

13.  Script: Did you include the script? Is script formatted correctly and error-free?

14.  WVSU Research/Ethics Board: Did you list any ethical concerns (nudity, human experiments, ethical treatment of animals, etc.) and address how these will be handled within your film? Did you make arrangements for submission of your proposal to the Research/Ethics Board if ethical issues are involved?

15.  Did you use APA style throughout the proposal? 

 

 

  • Final versions of all of the above material should also be included when the project is completed, in addition to the film/video itself.  These written materials will constitute the “bound” portion of the student’s project.  Additional written material that must accompany the final project includes:
  • A section on Marketing Concepts (who is the intended audience and demonstrate how the film/video is ready for the market)
  • A Narrative that describes the challenges the student has faced as well as what he or she has learned.
  • A production notebook which includes a detailed account of all aspects of production.  This could include such elements as research completed, location scouting, notes on the writing process, lists of crew and collaborators, etc.

Students wishing to produce special advertising or marketing commercial, info-mercials, and/or training films/videos that are less than 15 minutes in length are expected to submit other ancillary materials in addition to ALL of the requirements described above.  These materials might include:

 

  • A series of 15 second – 30 second video PSA's and/or commercials
  • Radio PSA's;
  • Print Advertising Copy (a specific thematic campaign) with at least 5 examples;
  • Poster for the Video
  • A sample newspaper insert (4 pages) that promotes the project
  • Examples of Press Releases
  • Social Networking campaign
  • Comprehensive website to include media (video/audio).
  • Other materials as recommended by the thesis/project director and committee.
 
 
Guidelines for Screenplay Thesis Proposals

 

 

 

Pre-thesis requirements

The thesis screenplay should be at least the second acceptable screenplay the student has written. Prior to submission (2 weeks minimum) of the thesis proposal, the student should present to his/her proposed thesis advisor an acceptable feature-length screenplay written prior to the thesis proposal. 

This feature-length narrative screenplay may be the result of successfully completing work in the Graduate Screenwriting course. Or, it may be satisfied by a screenplay written in another course or out of academia. This work must be deemed to be of acceptable quality by the thesis advisor before the student may proceed to the formal thesis proposal.

 

Include in your proposal:

  • A brief synopsis of proposed screenplay. You will expand this section of the proposal with a longer treatment later in the proposal. Include here (briefly):
  • Theme (what will the movie say?)
  • Plot (general chain of events that provide story infrastructure)
  • Characters (Who are the primary characters, what is their problem/need?)
  • Mise-en-scene (what is the environment(s) that the story exists in? How will you use location as “character?”)
  • Images (what will be unique in the “pictures” you create to tell the story?)  
  • Write the 1 – 3 sentence “tagline” that best sums up your story and that can be used as the quick-pitch for the project.
  • Statement of vision
  • Briefly explain “why” you think this script should be written.  How will this work contribute to the field of cinema?  How is the idea (theme) and/or approach (structure/form) unique, or how does it bring new light to the familiar?
  • Express the uniqueness (“voice” and “vision”) that you intend to bring to the screenplay. 
  • Who are you?  (In a short essay tell who you are and how the art of screenwriting, and this proposed screenplay in particular, will aid the evolution as you as an artist/professional, and as a human being.)
  • Research and Development (In a few paragraphs describe the major influences (writers and works) on your thesis. You will expand this portion of the proposal in the bibliography Section where you will cite specific books, screenplays, individual screenwriters, and  films used in the  development of this work.  Within the context of the work (i.e., personal, historical, political) explain the types of research that you will conduct to aid in the creation of the screenplay.
  • 5-15 page script treatment.
  • Supplemental support materials (at discretion of thesis advisor)
  • Design the poster.  If this screenplay were to make it to the screen, create the poster/box art that would best sell the product.  Note: You will not be judged on graphic art skill.
  • You may also include additional supportive materials such as storyboards, production design materials, or other production plans.
  • And then what?  As a screenplay is not a terminal product, but a means to an end, upon completion how to you intend to get it “out there” (i.e., competitions, festivals, submissions to agencies, self production, etc.)?
  • Bibliography
 
Guidelines for Critical Analysis, Theory and Research-oriented Thesis Proposals

Chapter 1: Purpose and Significance of the Study 

In the first chapter, clearly state what the purpose of the study is and explain the study's significance. The significance is addressed by discussing how the study adds to the theoretical body of knowledge in the field and the study's practical significance for communication professionals in the field being examined. 

Students also must explain how their research makes an original contribution to the body of knowledge in their discipline. They also should address the significance of the study for mass communication education. 

It is especially critical that this chapter be well developed. Without a clearly defined purpose and strong theoretical grounding, the thesis or dissertation is fundamentally flawed from the outset. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2: Review of the Literature 

The purpose of the study should suggest some theoretical framework to be explained further in this chapter. The literature review thus describes and analyzes previous research on the topic. 

This chapter, however, should not merely string together what other researchers have found. Rather, you should discuss and analyze the body of knowledge with the ultimate goal of determining what is known and is not known about the topic. This determination leads to your research questions and/or hypotheses. In some cases, of course, you may determine that replicating previous research is needed. 

Chapter 3: Methodology 

This chapter describes and justifies the data gathering method used. This chapter also outlines how you analyzed your data. 

Begin by describing the method you chose and why this method was the most appropriate. In doing so, you should cite reference literature about the method. 

Next, detail every step of the data gathering and analysis process. Although this section varies depending on method and analysis technique chosen, many of the following areas typically are addressed: 

--description of research design 

internal validity 

external validity 

--description of population and description of and justification for type of sample used or method for selecting units of observation 

--development of instrument or method for making observations (e.g., question guide, categories for content analysis) 

pre-test 

reliability and validity of instrument or method 

--administration of instrument or method for making observations (e.g., interviews, observation, content analysis) 

--coding of data 

--description of data analysis 

statistical analysis and tests performed 

identification of themes/categories (qualitative or historical research) 

Chapter 4: Findings 

This chapter addresses the results from your data analysis only. This chapter does not include discussing other research literature or the implications of your findings. 

Usually you begin by outlining any descriptive or exploratory/confirmatory analyses (e.g., reliability tests, factor analysis) that were conducted. You next address the results of the tests of hypotheses. You then discuss any ex post facto analysis. Tables and/or figures should be used to illustrate and summarize all numeric information. 

For qualitative and historical research, this chapter usually is organized by the themes or categories uncovered in your research. If you have conducted focus groups or interviews, it is often appropriate to provide a brief descriptive (e.g., demographic) profile of the participants first. Direct quotation and paraphrasing of data from focus groups, interviews, or historical artifacts then are used to support the generalizations made. In some cases, this analysis also includes information from field notes or other interpretative data (e.g., life history information). 

Chapter 5: Discussion 

The purpose of this chapter is not just to reiterate what you found but rather to discuss what your findings mean in relation to the theoretical body of knowledge on the topic and your profession. Typically, students skimp on this chapter even though it may be the most important one because it answers the "So what?" question. 

Begin by discussing your findings in relation to the theoretical framework introduced in the literature review. In some cases, you may need to introduce new literature (particularly with qualitative research). 

This chapter also should address what your findings mean for communication professionals in the field being examined. In other words, what are the study's practical implications? 

This chapter next outlines the limitations of the study. Areas for future research then are proposed. 

Obviously, the thesis or dissertation ends with a brief conclusion that provides closure. A strong final sentence should be written.

  •  

 

 

 

 

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
 
All projects and theses require some form of literature review.  The format of a review of literature may vary from discipline to discipline and should be addressed in the proposal.
 
A review may be a self-contained unit -- an end in itself -- or a preface to and rationale for engaging in primary research. A review is, in many cases, a required part of grant and research proposals and often a chapter in the thesis.  
 
Generally, the purpose of a review is to analyze critically a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles.  In Media Studies, a review of the literature could include written work as well as films, videos, screenplays, and web sites.
 
In the introduction to a Review of the Literature you should:

 

  • Define or identify the general topic, issue, or area of concern, thus providing an appropriate context for reviewing the literature. 
  • Point out overall trends in what has been published about the topic; or conflicts in theory, methodology, evidence, and conclusions; or gaps in research and scholarship; or a single problem or new perspective of immediate interest. 
  • Establish the writer's reason (point of view) for reviewing the literature; explain the criteria to be used in analyzing and comparing literature and the organization of the review (sequence); and, when necessary, state why certain literature is or is not included (scope). 
  • In the body, you should:
  • Group research studies and other types of literature (reviews, theoretical articles, case studies, etc.) according to common denominators such as genres, qualitative versus quantitative approaches, conclusions of authors, specific purpose or objective, chronology, etc. 
  • Summarize individual studies, articles or films with as much or as little detail as each merits according to its comparative importance in the literature, remembering that space (length) denotes significance. 
  • Provide the reader with strong "umbrella" sentences at beginnings of paragraphs, "signposts" throughout, and brief "so what" summary sentences at intermediate points in the review to aid in understanding comparisons and analyses. 

 

In the conclusion, you should:

 

  • Summarize major contributions of significant studies, articles, films, videos and other media to the body of knowledge under review, maintaining the focus established in the introduction. 
  • Evaluate the current "state of the art" for the body of knowledge reviewed, pointing out major methodological flaws or gaps in research, inconsistencies in theory and findings, and areas or issues pertinent to future study. 
  • Conclude by providing some insight into the relationship between the central topic of the literature review and the particular area of study that constitutes your thesis/project and (possibly) the larger area of study that encompasses the discipline, profession, or knowledge base.
 
Note:  Even documentary film projects, comprehensive web designs, animation, and marketing projects require a literature review!

 

 

TIMELINES FOR SUBMITTING THESES/PROJECTS

 

ALL theses/projects are due in the Media Studies office at least seven (7) days prior to the commencement ceremony in which the degree is to be conferred. Prior to submission to the Department office, the thesis/project must have been defended and any and all changes and/or corrections from this defense must have been completed.

The copy of your thesis or project that is presented to the Media Studies office for pre-checking must be a copy (printed on regular white paper as opposed to archival paper) that is free from ALL errors and is, to your knowledge, a perfect copy. The same is true for the project, which is submitted utilizing the appropriate electronic medium along with written materials.  The Media Studies Program is not responsible for proofreading your paper or reviewing your project; however, the entire document will be read for format and grammar and your media project will be checked for format and/or electronic problems.  If errors are found, your paper or project will be returned to you for corrections, which could delay your graduation. Be sure to follow the margin requirements, pagination, placement of tables and figures, etc., as specified in this Guide. If you do this, it should greatly reduce the number of changes you will need to make.

After your thesis/project has been cleared by the Media Studies office and you have made any necessary corrections, you are now ready to print/produce your final copies.

After copies are made you should get your committee members’ signatures. ALL signature pages must be printed on the same archival paper as your manuscript and all signatures must be original and must be rendered ONLY in blue ink. Any other color ink is not acceptable. 

After your committee members have signed the signature pages you should submit them to the Media Studies Program Coordinator and the Dean for their signatures.  The Dean will also date the signature page in the space that is provided.

After all your signatures are secured, you should prepare a 10 x 13 clasp envelope – one for each copy that you plan to have bound – and place one complete copy of your manuscript or electronic media in each envelope. For theses, you are required to have at least three (3) copies bound (these are for:  the Office of Academic Affairs, the Library, and the Department). You may have as many additional copies bound as desired. The student is responsible for the cost of binding of all copies.  There is a special Thesis Binding fee that must be paid at the Cashier's Office.  After you receive your Cashier's receipt, schedule an appointment with University Library and deposit your thesis/project for binding.  

At the time you deposit your thesis/project with Library you should be given a receipt. This receipt must be taken to the Media Studies office to verify delivery and to ensure that you receive graduation clearance.

Submit your thesis/project earlier than the due date. This ensures a much quicker turn around.

Electronic versions of theses must be provided to the Media Studies office as well as the paper copy.  These are to be submitted on MAM Gold Archive Grade CD-R disks in MS-Word and PDF formats.  

You must use MAM Gold Archive Grade DVD-R for projects.  These disks may be available at the library for or from on-line disk distributors such as Amazon. They cost approximately $2 each.

 

 

 

FORMAT AND APPEARANCE

 

The student is expected to prepare the text of the completed thesis/project in accordance with the usual practices of good English. The student is also expected to provide copies of the manuscript including all tables and figures and copies of sound recordings or slides, if any, for all members of the committee.  This applies to the project as well and would include copies of tapes, DVD's, etc.  The student is expected to check the media project carefully for audio and video problems (signal loss, static, noise, etc.)

Following the defense of the thesis/project and acceptance by the committee, a copy of the complete manuscript and/or project free from ALL errors must be submitted to the Media Studies office for pre-checking. In the pre-check, the Office will examine the manuscript/project in detail so that any errors of format found at that point can be corrected before the archival and final copies are made.  When format errors have been corrected, the student will prepare an original (archival copy) and at least three copies of the final text and any sound recordings or slides. 

The original (archival copy), at least two final copies and an electronic version of the thesis must be submitted to the Dean for official approval.  If approved, the original and two copies shall become the property of the university. Therefore, if the student wants a personal copy, with a completed signature page, or additional signed copies, they must be presented with the original and the two required copies.

 

Paper and Duplication

 

Archival Copy (Original)

 

The thesis or written materials accompanying the project must be printed on high quality, durable, white paper, 8-1/2 x 11 inches in size.  and at least twenty-pound weight. 

The paper chosen for the archival copy of the thesis must be selected for its permanence and durability and must be acid-free with a minimum of two percent alkaline reserve. Erasable papers are not acceptable for any portion of the project or thesis.

The electronic version of the thesis and the written materials accompanying the project should be submitted on CD-ROM in both MS-Word and Adobe PDF file formats.

No compression or password protection should be used. All fonts used should be embedded in the document. External or internal links to multi-media files are acceptable. If multimedia elements are used in the document, file formats should be identified in the thesis abstract. Acceptable file formats include the following: 

 

Images:
     GIF (.gif)
     JPEG (.jpeg)
     PDF (.pdf) use Type 1 PostScript fonts
     TIFF (.tif) 

 

Video:
     Apple Quick Time (.mov)
     Microsoft Audio Video Interleaved (.avi)
     MPEG (.mpg) 

 

Audio:
     AIF (.aif)
     CD-DA
     CD-ROM/XA
     MIDI (.midi)
     MPEG-2
     SND (.snd)
     WAV (.wav) 

 

Copies

 

Copies of the thesis and written materials that accompany the project must also be on acid-free paper with a two percent alkaline reserve, again with a minimum weight of twenty pounds.  (delete) Papers with high rag content do not work well in electrostatic or xerographic copy machines. If papers containing cotton rag are used in this type of copy machine, the rag content should not exceed twenty-five percent. When there is a higher rag content, the copied image can easily be erased or rubbed off.

Photocopying is a good method of duplication, but copy quality must be extremely good.

This standard of quality is possible only if the machine used is very clean and well maintained.

Copies with stray marks, smudges, or other irregularities will not be accepted.  The electrostatic method of photo duplication, which uses dry toner and a fusing technique with heat and pressure, is preferred. Duplication methods that use papers coated with an image-forming layer are not acceptable, nor are those that use processes involving zinc oxide.

Photocopies should have consistently dark print quality with high contrast throughout the

thesis. Any copies that appear significantly lighter than the rest must be recopied to conform to a uniform dark, clear print quality. It should be noted that photocopy machines enlarge the original by approximately one percent. This varies slightly among different machines, but it is important to be aware of this enlargement so that margin limitations will not be exceeded. Tables and figures may be reduced on reduction photocopy machines provided that any accompanying text does not become smaller than the typeface of the text or than elite type.

 

PREPARING THE MANUSCRIPT

 

Printing

 

Computer printers must be of letter quality. Dot matrix printers are, for purposes of these requirements, not of letter quality and therefore not acceptable. Acceptable font styles are: Arial, CG Times or Times New Roman and font sizes: 11 or 12. Nonstandard typefaces, such as script, are not acceptable. Italics are permitted for mathematical and statistical expressions and scientific names of genera, species, and the like. All textual material should be computer printed or typewritten. Special symbols may be drawn in black India ink.

All printing, including pagination, must be of the same size and style. The text of the manuscript must be double -spaced, but long tables, long quotations (defined as 100 words or as stipulated within the student’s discipline and applied consistently), footnotes, and multi-line captions should be single -spaced. Text must be on only one side of the paper. All paragraphs must be indented five spaces. Do not justify the text. Students are encouraged to bring sample pages of the final manuscript to their thesis directors to see that all manuscript requirements are being met.

 

Margins

 

The following minimum margins must be observed:

 

1-1/2 inches at the top, one inch at the bottom and right, and 1-1/2 inches on the left side of the page. The extra half-inch on the left is to allow for binding. This same 1-1/2 inch binding margin must be left on the appropriate side if the paper is turned ninety degrees in the typewriter when typing tables, charts, or other similar material. All information, including titles, footnotes, and tables, must conform to the margins specified (except for page numbers). Large plates, charts, etc., must be reduced when possible so that they fit within the prescribed margins, but notations or writing on them must be easily legible and no smaller than elite type. When plates larger than 8-1/2 x 11 inches cannot be reduced, refer to the section entitled “Oversized Material” for directions.

 

Pagination

 

Every page on which any typing, figure, table, or drawing appears is counted and numbered with the following exceptions: the approval sheet is neither counted nor numbered; the title page is counted as page i but not numbered; the abstract title page is counted but not numbered, although the number assigned to this page is used in the table of contents; the bibliography is preceded by a division sheet containing the centered word Bibliography or References, or other heading as determined by the discipline, and this page is counted but not numbered, although the number assigned to this page is used in the table of contents.  If appendices are needed, they follow the bibliography and are preceded by a division sheet marked Appendix or Appendices, as appropriate, and it is counted but not numbered. All numbers are placed without punctuation in the upper right hand corner, 1/2 inch from the top edge and aligned with the right margin, except any page beginning with a centered heading must have the page number centered one half-inch from the bottom edge. The preliminary pages (those preceding the text of the thesis) are numbered consecutively in lowercase Roman numerals centered in the bottom margin. The first page to be numbered is the first page following the title page, and it is numbered ii. The text and reference pages are numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, beginning with 1 on the first page of the text.

 

Footnotes and Endnotes

 

Students should follow the most recent APA guidelines for footnotes and/or endnotes.  

 

Tables and Figures

 

The word “table” designates tabulated numerical data used in the body of the thesis and in the appendices. The word “figure” designates all other nonverbal material, such as illustrations, charts, graphs, maps, photographs, drawings, diagrams, musical scores, and facsimiles of manuscript pages.  These may be inserted electronically or through a "cut and paste" method.

All tables and figures must be of reproducible quality. They are to be inserted as near as possible to the portion of the text which they illustrate. The table or figure, including the captions, is to be placed on the page inside the prescribed margins. Tables and figures are not to appear on the same page as the text to which they refer unless they occupy a half page or less; when text is used on the same page, it should be separated from the table or figure by a triple space. Two or more small tables or figures may be grouped on a single page. Any original figures should be rendered with black India ink. The use of pencil is not acceptable on the original, nor is the use of felt-tip pen since the color bleeds through to the adjacent pages. The use of color, especially in graphs, charts, or maps, should be avoided because colors often cannot be distinguished in copies. Therefore, lines of a graph should be identified using symbols or labels instead of colors. Areas on maps may be indicated by crosshatching rather than by color.

All tables and figures must be produced on quality paper, as specified under “Paper and

Duplication.” Musical examples on lower-quality paper must be photocopied on the quality paper specified under “Paper and Duplication.” Tables and figures on transparent film or produced by computers on lower-quality paper must be photocopied on the quality paper specified under “Paper and Duplication.”

Small figures must be mounted using the dry-mount process. With this method, dry-mount tissue, placed between the figures and the mounting paper, fuses when heat is applied (by either a heat press or an electric iron). Acid-free dry-mounting tissue must be used. 

Rubber cement, aerosol spray glues, and gummed or cellophane tapes deteriorate rapidly and therefore are not acceptable. Spray adhesives and dry-mount cements must not be used.

When many smaller figures are used throughout the thesis, it is advisable to distribute the bulk by placing a portion of the figures toward the top of the page and the rest toward the bottom in order to even out the thickness of the manuscript. When smaller figures are being mounted using the above method, it is important to have page numbers and identification of figures already typed on the mounting paper. This identification of figures should be typed either beneath the figure or on the front of the preceding page.

Information should not be typed on the back of the preceding page (facing the figure). Tables and figures are numbered in separate series. Each table and figure, including any in the appendix, must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals in its own series. The captions for figures and tables must be identical with those used in the list of tables and the list of figures in the preliminary pages. Page numbers should be given to tables and figures that are interleaved with the text.

Graphs must be drawn on cross-section paper (or prepared by an artist), but the thesis paper margins must be preserved.

Large charts, tables, figures, etc., which must be reduced to fit within the prescribed margins, must have lettering and symbols which, after reduction, are at least as large as elite type so that they can be read easily.

 

Photographs

 

As noted, photographs are a type of figure. The following additional regulations apply to photographs. All photographs must be original prints for all copies of the thesis. Black and white photographs are preferred. If a color photograph must be used, a photograph of the same subject in black and white should be included since color photographs tend to fade. The photographs included in the archival copy of the thesis must receive archival processing. Standards for archival processing of photographs are  specified by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). These standards are listed under the following ANSI numbers: PH 4.29, PH 4.30, PH 4.32, and PH 4.33.

Photographs should be printed on an 8-1/2 x 11 inch sheet of single -weight polyfiber photographic paper with a glossy finish and included in the thesis without further mounting. The margins for the photographic image should be the same as those for typing (see "Margins”). If 8- 1/2 x 11 inch paper is not available, the photograph(s) must be printed on a larger paper of this specific type and trimmed to size.

If the photographs are less than 8-1/2 x 11 inches, they should be firmly dry-mounted as discussed in the section “Tables and Figures.” Acid-free dry-mounting tissue must be used. 

No other adhesive should be used. Rubber cement, gummed or cellophane tapes, spray adhesives, dry-mount cements, photographic corners, and acetate pockets are not acceptable.

Mounted photographs should not extend into the 1-1/2 inch binding margin on the left side of the thesis.

 

Digitally inserted photographs are also acceptable; they should be in .jpg format.

 

Note:  Please refer to copyright guidelines before reproducing and including photos and other inserts that are under copyright.

 

Oversized Material

 

Occasional exceptions to the 8-1/2 x 11-inch paper-size limitation are made when deemed necessary, as is sometimes the case with musical scores. The same physical specifications as listed under “Paper Quality” must be applied to all oversized material included in a thesis.

Charts, maps, graphs, tables, or any other necessary tables or figures which are larger than the standard page size and cannot be successfully reduced may be carefully folded and included in order in the thesis or placed in a large acid-free envelope for storage, when bound in a pocket, attached by the bindery, to the back board of the cover of the thesis. Oversized material to be stored in an envelope should be folded so that it is approximately one inch narrower than the width of the envelope and about 1/8 of an inch shorter than the length of the envelope. For example, if the dimensions of the envelope are 7-1/2 x 10 inches, then the outer dimensions of the folded oversized material to be stored should be no larger than 6-1/2 x 9-7/8 inches. Envelopes made of acid-free material can be obtained from a number of sources.

When oversized material is to be included as a regular page in the thesis, the material should be arranged on the page to allow a margin of 1-1/2 inches on the binding edge. When the figure is folded this binding margin must protrude from the folds and be a 1-1/2 inch stub on the left side of the folded page. The page should be folded carefully so that there are as few folds made as possible, and so that the page can be easily unfolded after the thesis is bound. The folded outer edges of the material should be 1/2 inch smaller than the text pages on all three unbound edges of the thesis. The overall dimensions of the folded material, then, will be approximately 8 x 10 inches. With these dimensions the bindery can safely trim 1/8 inch off the three open edges of the thesis without slicing into the folds.

 

Computer Printouts

 

A computer printout to be submitted as part of the thesis should be reduced to the standard 8-1/2 x 11 inch page size. Computer paper, which is 11 x 14-7/8 reduces to 8-1/2 x 11 inches on a photocopy machine set at seventy-seven percent reproduction size. Margin requirements are the same as for the rest of the thesis. The reduced print cannot be smaller than elite type and should be of dark, clear, good quality. Computer printouts must meet the standards specified for paper quality.  If the available printer does not produce clear print, the computer printout should be typed.

 

Slides

 

Slides must be taken with Kodak Ektachrome 50 Professional film (Tungsten) ASA 50 balanced for exposure by Tungsten (3200K) lamps.

 

Two-dimensional items must be placed on a flat black wall. Two new 500W (3200K)

Tungsten photo lamps should be set at forty-five-degree angles to the item to be photographed so that the surface will be evenly lit. Make sure that all extraneous light sources are turned off before starting.

All exposures must be metered from a gray card (eighteen percent reflectance). The gray card should be held near the center of the item. For the light reading, the meter is held within six inches of the surface and in such a manner that the card is not shaded by the meter or by the person holding the meter.

Transparencies must be in a glass mount. Slide-mounting glass should be cleaned to remove contaminants before the slides are assembled. The transparencies must be masked with silver tape before being placed between the glass.

A typed label with the following information should be placed on each slide: name, date, title, and number. Slides must be arranged in correct sequence and numbered consecutively. A small gummed paper dot must be applied to the lower left corner of each mount.  Slides, when mounted and labeled, must be placed on 9-1/8 by 11-3/8-inch archival slide pages. 

 

 

Sound Recording   Archival Master (Original)

 

The original recording should be executed on a full size compact disc designed for audio and music recording following Red Book standards. The sound file(s) must be normalized so that sufficient level is present on the CD. The recording may not contain any digital artifacts and must be playable on commercial CD players.

 

Copies

 

Copies should be executed on the same brand, quality and length of CD medium and be an exact digital duplicate. All copies must have the same index numbers and timings as the original.

 

Labels

 

The CD face and J-Card should be white with black lettering no smaller than 9-point typeface.

Each label on the CD face and the J-card shall contain the following information:

 

  • Title or short title, two line maximum
  • Performer's name as it appears on the title page of the manuscript
  • CD number and the total number of sides (example: CD1 of 5)
  • The total duration of the CD
  • Number, name and duration of each index
  • The words "Thesis" or "Project" as appropriate
  • Degree and Date to be conferred
  • All numbers must be Arabic except those that are part of the title or performers name. Each copy must be housed in a one-piece, hinged, see-through polypropylene jewel case.

 

ARRANGEMENT OF CONTENTS

 

The thesis typically includes the following parts arranged in the order given:

 

Thesis Part                                                                       Page Assignment

 

Front flyleaf (blank)                                                        no page number assigned

Approval sheet                                                                 no page number assigned

Title page                                                                        small roman numeral (assigned, not printed)

Copyright page (optional)                                                small roman numeral (printed)

Acknowledgment or dedication page (optional)             small roman numeral (printed)

Table of contents                                                            small roman numeral (printed)

List of tables (if used)                                                    small roman numeral (printed)

List of figures (if used)                                                  small roman numeral (printed)

List of abbreviations or symbols (if used)                     small roman numeral (printed)

Abstract                                                                         small roman numeral (first page assigned but not printed; second page, if necessary, printed)

Body of thesis (chapters)                                              Arabic numerals, starting with 1

Division sheet                                                               Arabic numeral (assigned, not printed), continuing from body

Reference material or bibliography                               continuing Arabic numerals (printed)

Division sheet                                                               continuing Arabic numeral (not printed)

Appendices (if included)                                               continuing Arabic numerals (printed)

Back flyleaf (blank)                                                      no page number assigned

 

A thesis (and, in most instances, the written materials that accompany a project) have three major parts—preliminaries, text, and reference material.  Although these divisions are not so labeled in the thesis, the terms are used here for the sake of convenience.

 

The Preliminary Pages

 

The preliminary pages include the following in the order given: the approval sheet; the title page; the copyright page if the thesis is copyrighted; an acknowledgments page; a table of contents; if appropriate, a list of tables, a list of figures, and a list of abbreviations or symbols; and an abstract.

The function of the approval sheet is to enable the student’s thesis director, committee, and the Dean or a representative to indicate that the manuscript satisfies the thesis requirement for the particular degree. It includes the title of the thesis, the student’s name, and spaces for the prescribed signatures (see Sample B).

 

The signatures on all copies must be originals and rendered in blue ink.

 

The title page is counted as page i, but the number is not printed on the page. The date should include the month and the year in which the thesis is approved by the student’s committee. Words are underlined (to indicate italics) in the title only when they themselves are titles or when they are scientific terms that are customarily underlined (see Sample C).

If sound recordings or slides are a part of the thesis, the number, written, of each, should be typed on the title page, centered, four lines below the month and year thesis is approved (see examples C-II and C-III).

A master’s candidate must decide whether or not to copyright the thesis. If such a page is used, it is page ii, typed (see Copyright).

An acknowledgments page in which the student expresses recognition of and appreciation for any special assistance is optional but is customarily included. If such a page is used, the word Acknowledgments should be centered without punctuation two inches from the top of the page.

The text of the acknowledgment should begin on the fourth line below.

The contents page should be headed Table of Contents, with the heading centered without punctuation two inches from the top of the page. The listings begin at the left margin four spaces below the heading. The table of contents lists all material following the contents page. 

The titles of chapters, parts or sections must be listed and must be worded exactly as they appear in the body of the manuscript. The page number of each part is listed flush against the right margin and below the heading page. Any space between the last word of a section title and the page number can be filled with spaced periods (see Sample D).

The format of the list of tables and the list of figures is the same as that for the table of contents (see Sample E). The list of abbreviations or symbols should follow the form normally used in the student’s discipline.

The abstract consists of an essay-style summary of the thesis. It should be a succinct account allowing readers to make an accurate decision as to whether the full contents will aid their study. Diagrams or other illustrated materials and formulas or equations in the abstract are to be avoided if possible (see Sample F). The title on the abstract page should follow the pattern of the title page for the thesis (see Sample F). The abstract title page is not numbered or centered, but the body of the abstract should continue the consecutive roman enumeration begun with the title page. In other words, the abstract page is assigned a number, but it is not typed. The body of the abstract is to be typed and double -spaced.

 

The Text

 

The text, the body of the thesis, is to be double spaced using one side of each page.  As indicated in the table of contents, each of the major divisions of the body of the manuscript will begin a page. The heading for the division should be centered without punctuation two inches below the top of the page, the next beginning four spaces below the heading. The pages of the text are numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals from the first page of the text through the bibliography and any appendices.

 

Bibliography

 

For the bibliography, the student should follow departmental practice on inclusion or exclusion of works and on the form of the entry.  This section should begin with a cover sheet headed Bibliography or List of References or Literature Cited or another heading as determined by the discipline, centered without punctuation.  This page is assigned a number but it is not printed. The heading is repeated on the first page of the bibliography itself, two inches from the top, centered, and without punctuation. The list of sources begins four spaces below the heading.

The sources themselves are frequently arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author or the first major word of the title of anonymous publications, but some disciplines may suggest a different grouping of sources. The precise content of the entry should be determined by the discipline, but the intent is to provide all of the information necessary for the reader to locate and consult the sources. Regardless of the form used, each journal citation should include at least the author’s name, title of the article, the journal in which it was published, the volume and issue number, year, and pages. Book citations should include, as a minimum, author, title, and publisher. Format of literature citations should conform to those used by the major journals in the investigator’s specific field.

 

Appendices

 

Appendices should begin with a division sheet marked Appendix or Appendices. This page is assigned a number but it is not printed. All pages following the division sheet are numbered with the consecutive Arabic numerals begun on the first page of the text.

 

COPYRIGHT, DUE DATE, AND BINDING

 

Copyright

 

If copyright is to be secured for the thesis, the notice of copyright must appear at the center of a separate copyright page. The notice consists of three elements: (1) the symbol ©, (2) the year of first publication (the year in which the thesis is approved by the Student’s Committee), and (3) the name of the owner of copyright (name of thesis author).

 

Example:

© 1998 by Lee Henry Bowker

 

Such notice does not include sound recordings. Information on copyright protection may be obtained at the reference desk in the library.

A master’s candidate must decide whether or not to copyright the thesis.  It is not required.

 

Due Date

 

Copies of the thesis must be officially deposited with the Dean on or before the date specified in the academic calendar. The report of the oral examination will be filed by the thesis director with the Dean immediately after the advisory committee has given final approval. 

After the Dean approves the thesis, the thesis, the thesis director will report grades to the registrar for any thesis course credit, or will remove any grades of “IP” in thesis credit.

 

Binding

 

After the signature page is signed by the Dean, the original and at least two copies of the manuscript are each to be placed separately in 10 x 13-inch envelopes.  An electronic version of the manuscript (on disk or CD-ROM) must also be submitted at this time.

If sound recordings are a part of the thesis, the original recording (master) must be placed in the envelope containing the archival copy of the manuscript. A copy of the original recording must be placed in each of the envelopes, which contain copies of the manuscript.

If slides are a part of the thesis, a complete set of slides in archival slide pages must be placed in each of the envelopes, which contain copies of the manuscript.

The envelopes are to be left unsealed. The following information should be typed on the front center of the envelope: the student’s name, permanent home address, title of the thesis, degree, and the month and year in which the thesis is approved (see Sample HI).

If compact discs or slides are part of the thesis the number, written, of each, with each manuscript should be typed on the envelope preceded by the word “Includes.” (See Samples H-II and H-III.)

The thesis and all copies to be bound are taken to the university library and deposited for binding. (Students should pay the required fee at the Cashier's Office and bring the receipt to the library along with the copies to be bound.)  The student must call the circulation department and make an appointment beforehand. If sound recordings are part of the thesis, mention this when arranging an appointment. The original will go to the Office of Academic Affairs. One copy will be retained by the library and one copy will go to the department.

The student must bring a receipt from the library to the Dean's Office to verify deposit for binding. The student must pay the binding costs for all copies. If the student wishes to have additional copies bound in the same manner, arrangements should be made when copies are deposited for binding. The student has not satisfied all requirements for the degree until a receipt is presented to the Dean's Office from the library showing the thesis has been presented for binding.

The bindery will put the author’s surname and the first five words of the title, followed by an ellipsis, if necessary, on the spine.

 

 

Format and Appearance – Projects  

 

Supporting Documents for CD-ROM or DVD Project:

 

While it is expected that the final M.A. project is primarily visual in nature, supporting written documents that accompany the project are required.  The exact nature of the accompanying written material should be agreed upon in advance by the student and project director and could include a hypothesis or research question, literature review, production schedule, budget, methodologies and procedures, narrative descriptions of pre-production, production, and post production, bibliography, etc . Written materials and documents should follow the same organizational structure as the thesis and also include:

 

  • Title Page 
  • Abstract 
  • Reprint Permission Letters to reproduce previously copyrighted materials within the body of the work 
  • A description of software or other applications used to create the CD-ROM or DVD disk, including a list of files and file sizes on the disk 
  • Written permission to reproduce copyrighted images, video, graphics, animation, data and images of individuals.   (See Appendix B, Media Studies Release Form)

Sample A-I

Sample of Cover Page of Thesis Proposal
(For Project Proposal cover page, see Sample A-II)

 

West Virginia State University

Graduate School

THESIS PROPOSAL FOR MASTER OF ARTS DEGREE

 

Student’s Name:                                                 Date:

 
Email:                                              Department/Program:

 

Degree:

 

Tentative Title:

 

Committee Members:

Name of Director:                                              Signature: 

Date:
 

Committee Member # 1:                                    Signature:  

Date:
 

Committee Member # 2:                                    Signature:  

Date:
 

Program Coordinator:                                      Signature:  

Date:
 

Dean:                                                               Signature:  

Date:

 

Sample A-II

Sample of Cover Page of Project Proposal
(For Thesis cover page, see Sample A-II)

West Virginia State University

Graduate School

PROJECT PROPOSAL FOR MASTER OF ARTS DEGREE

 

 

Student’s Name:                                                 Date:

 
Email:                                              Department/Program:

 

Degree:

 

Tentative Title:

 

Committee Members:

Name of Director:                                              Signature: 

Date:
 

Committee Member # 1:                                    Signature:  

Date:
 

Committee Member # 2:                                    Signature:  

Date:
 

Program Coordinator:                                       Signature:  

Date:
 

Dean:                                                                Signature:  

Date:

 

SAMPLE B-I - Sample Approval Sheet of Thesis  (For Project approval sheet see Sample B-II)

 

THESIS TITLE HERE

SINGLE-SPACED IN CAPITALS

 

By

 

John William Doe

 

A Thesis

Submitted to the

Faculty of the Graduate School

of

West Virginia State University

in Partial Fulfillment of

the Requirements for the Degree

of

Master of Arts

 

Committee:


                                    , Director 

 

                                    , Media Studies Graduate Coordinator

 

                                    , Dean

 

Date: _______________________________

 

(Spring, Fall, or Summer) 20__

West Virginia State University

Institute, West VirginiaSAMPLE B-II -  Sample Approval Sheet of Project (For Thesis approval sheet see Sample B-I)

 

PROJECT  TITLE HERE

SINGLE-SPACED IN CAPITALS

 

By

 

John William Doe

 

A Project

Submitted to the

Faculty of the Graduate School

of

West Virginia State University

in Partial Fulfillment of

the Requirements for the Degree

of

Master of Arts

 

Committee:


                                    , Director 

 

                                    , Media Studies Graduate Coordinator

 

                                    , Dean

 

 

 

Date: _______________________________

 

(Spring, Fall, or Summer) 20__

West Virginia State University

Institute, West Virginia

SAMPLE C-I

Form to be followed on Title Page for Thesis

(For Project title page see Sample C-II)

 

 

TITLE HERE

SINGLE-SPACED IN CAPITALS

 

 

 

A thesis presented to the faculty of the Graduate

School of West Virginia State University in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of Master of Arts

 

 

By

 

 

(Student’s name in full)

 

 

 

Director: Director’s name,

title, and department

 

 

 

(Month and year in which thesis is approved)

 

 

SAMPLE C-II

Form to be followed on Title Page for Project

(For Thesis title page see Sample C-I)

 

 

 

TITLE HERE

SINGLE-SPACED IN CAPITALS

 

 

 

A project presented to the faculty of the Graduate

School of West Virginia State University in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of Master of Arts

 

 

By

 

 

(Student’s name in full)

 

 

 

Director: Director’s name,

title, and department

 

 

 

(Month and year in which thesis is approved)

 

 

Medium:  (List media used – DVD-R, CD-ROM, etc)

 

SAMPLE D

Sample Acknowledgement Page

 
 
 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 
 
 
I would like to thank my advisor and thesis director, Dr. William Trowbridge for his support and encouragement throughout…….etc, etc. (continue, single-space)
 
SAMPLE E
Table of Contents
 

Table of Contents

 

Page
 
List of Tables .......................................................................……....................……     viii

List of Figures ....................................................................…………..........….........       x

List of Abbreviations .......................................................……….............................     xii

Abstract ..................................................................................................................…    xvi

Introduction ................................................................................................................        1

A Rationale for This Study ..............................................................................……....      4

Objectives .....................................................................................................................      6

Literature Review ..........................................................................................…...........      7

A History of Broadband in the 21st Century..................................................................      7

Content Integration…………………..………………….……………………………     15

Portals and Content Providers..………………………………………………………     28

Method/Methodology…………………………………………………………………    32

Results…………………………………………………………………………………   38

Discussion…………………………………………………………………………….    45

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………     53

Bibliography (or References).......................................................................................     59

Appendices  (which may include any of the following:............…..............................      63

Questionnaire – Survey- Protocol -List of Figures -List of Abbreviations, etc. 

Bibliography (or References).......................................................................................     70    

 

SAMPLE E

List of Tables

 
 

Table                                                                                                                            Page

 

Summary of Election Day Trends, 1960-1996……….........................………….

 

Susceptibility of Undecided Voters to Attitude Change Due to Media Ads......…

 

Comparative Effectiveness of "Positive" vs. "Negative" Advertising................... 

 

 

SAMPLE F

Sample of Abstract

 

 

Abstract

 

THESIS/PROJECT TITLE HERE SINGLE-SPACED IN CAPITALS

 

John H. Doe, M.A.

 

West Virginia State University (Month and year degree granted)

 

Director: Dr. Erasmus B. Draggen

 

(Abstract, typed and double -spaced, starting at this point, continuing on next page if needed.)

 

SAMPLE G

Sample of DVD/CD/Media Label For M.A. Project

 

 

 

 

THE PRESIDENT'S DAY PROJECT

 

John James Doe 5/1/04

 

43:05

mins.

 

Media Studies Project: M.A. 7/7/04

 

 

 

 

 

SAMPLE H-I

Envelope Cover for Manuscript

(For Envelope Cover for Project see Sample H-II)

 

 

West Virginia State University

Graduate School

 

 

John Charles Doe

2489 Main Street

St. Albans, WV  25177

 

 

AN EVALUATION OF TELEVISION ADVERTISING IN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS, 1960-1996

 

 

Master of Arts

May 2004 (Month and year degree granted)

 

 

 

SAMPLE H-II

Envelope Cover for Project

(For Envelope Cover for Manuscript see Sample H-I)

 

West Virginia State University

Graduate School

 

 

John Charles Doe

2489 Main Street

St. Albans, WV  25177

 

 

THE PRESIDENT'S DAY  PROJECT

 

 

Master of Arts

May 2004 (Month and year degree granted)

 

Includes 2 DVD-R'S

 

DESIGNATED MANUALS

 

For all Media Studies Theses:

 

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, latest ed.

 

 

APPENDIX A

 

Media Studies Project

Release Form

 

This letter confirms the agreement between you and West Virginia State University regarding your participation in an approved West Virginia State University Media Studies Graduate Project in which you may be filmed, photographed or videotaped from time to time.

For valuable consideration received, you hereby irrevocably grant to West Virginia State University perpetually, exclusively, and for all media throughout the world (including print, non-theatrical, home video, CD-ROM, internet and any other electronic medium presently in existence or invented in the future), the right to use and incorporate (alone or together with other materials), in whole or in part, photographs or video footage taken of you as a result of your participation in approved activities of West Virginia State University.

You hereby agree that you will not bring or consent to others bringing claim or action against West Virginia State University on the grounds that anything contained in the Project, or in the advertising and publicity used in connection herewith, is defamatory, reflects adversely on you, violates any other right whatsoever, including, without limitation, rights of privacy and publicity. 

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APPENDIX B

HOW TO SET LEADERS

(Works with Word)

 

 

 

Open up a sheet of paper

 

Set your margins as follows:

 

Top = 2 inches

Left = 1 1/2 inches

Bottom = 1/2 inches

Right = 1 inch

 

Be sure your ruler is displayed - if not, go to View and place a check (by using cursor) by Ruler.

 

Type Table of Contents or List of Tables or List of Figures (and Center) - return and change Center heading to left setting so type is not centered.

 

By pointing cursor at the TAB set (at left end of ruler) choose the left TAB set ( ) and go to about the 5 1/2 mark on your top ruler and point your cursor and set your left TAB and click. With your cursor change your TAB set to ( ) and go to the last "hash" mark (probably the third mark past the 5 1/2 mark) on your ruler and again, by pointing the cursor, set this TAB here. Return and press TAB two times and type the word Page. (You will notice that it is typing the word Page from right to left). Press Return.

 

Next go to FORMAT (top of your screen) and choose TAB. This will open a "window" that has leaders - which automatically has NONE set. Go to 2 and enter a check mark and say OK. This will automatically set your leaders so that they will end where you have marked your LEFT TAB to set. Press TAB once more and this will take you to the end of the line where you can type your page numbers which will automatically line up from right to left.

 

When you need to change your level of header go back to TAB and with your cursor choose the left ( ) TAB set and set this where it is appropriate. You can keep setting these TABS as your levels of headings change.

APA Citation Basics

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

In-Text Citation Capitalization, Quotes, and Italics/Underlining

  • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
  • If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media, There Is Nothing Left to Lose. 

(Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.)

  • When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
  • Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo."
  • Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard of Oz; Friends.
  • Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds"; "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."

Short Quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

Long Quotations

Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Jones's (1998) study found the following:
    Students often had difficulty using APA style,
    especially when it was their first time citing sources.
    This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many
    students failed to  purchase a style manual or to ask   
    their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summary or Paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Contributors:Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing.

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.

Citing an Author or Authors

A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.

Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...

(Wegener & Petty, 1994)

A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.

(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

(Kernis et al., 1993)

In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

Harris et al. (2001) argued...

(Harris et al., 2001)

Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.

A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).

Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)

Second citation: (MADD, 2000)

Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.

(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)

Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.

(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that...

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterwords in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.

(Funk & Kolln, 1992)

Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

Citing Indirect Sources

If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.

Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.

Electronic Sources

If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.

Kenneth (2000) explained...

Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").

Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

Sources Without Page Numbers

When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para. 5). If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite.

According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

Note: Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination.

Contributors:Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing.

Footnotes and Endnotes

APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce. However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document, APA details the use of two types of footnotes: content and copyright.

When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses.

Scientists examined—over several years1—the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak.2 (These have now been transferred to the Chauan Museum.3)

When using the footnote function in a word-processing program like Microsoft Word, place all footnotes at the bottom of the page on which they appear. Footnotes may also appear on the final page of your document (usually this is after the References page). Center the word “Footnotes” at the top of the page. Indent five spaces on the first line of each footnote. Then, follow normal paragraph spacing rules. Double-space throughout.

1 While the method of examination for the wooly-wooly yak provides important insights to this research, this document does not focus on this particular species.

Content Notes

Content Notes provide supplemental information to your readers. When providing Content Notes, be brief and focus on only one subject. Try to limit your comments to one small paragraph.

Content Notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail elsewhere.

1 See Blackmur (1995), especially chapters three and four, for an insightful analysis of this extraordinary animal.

Copyright Permission Notes

If you quote more than 500 words of published material or think you may be in violation of “Fair Use” copyright laws, you must get the formal permission of the author(s). All other sources simply appear in the reference list.

Follow the same formatting rules as with Content Notes for noting copyright permissions. Then attach a copy of the permission letter to the document.

If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information. You should also submit written permission along with your work. Begin the citation with “Note.”

Note. From “Title of the article,” by W. Jones and R. Smith, 2007, Journal Title, 21, p. 122. Copyright 2007 by Copyright Holder. Reprinted with permission.

Contributors:Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing.

Reference List: Basic Rules

Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.

Basic Rules

  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
  • Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name. After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work. 
  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
  • If you have more than one article by the same author, single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest.
  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
  • When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word. 
  • Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
  • Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. For more information, see page 193 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, sixth edition.

Contributors:Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing.

Reference List: Author/Authors

The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.)

Single Author

Last name first, followed by author initials.

Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.

Two Authors

List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and."

Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.

Three to Seven Authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.

Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.

More Than Seven Authors

Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.

Organization as Author

American Psychological Association. (2003).

Unknown Author

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's, 1993).

Two or More Works by the Same Author

Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).

Berndt, T. J. (1981).

Berndt, T. J. (1999).

When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.

Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.

Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.

References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.

Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 6, 629-654.

Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: "Berdnt (1981a) makes similar claims..."

Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416.

Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords

Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword (whatever title is applicable) as the chapter of the book.

Funk, R. & Kolln, M. (1998). Introduction. In E.W. Ludlow (Ed.), Understanding English Grammar (pp. 1-2). Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Contributors:Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing.

Reference List: Articles in Periodicals

Basic Form

APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period. The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized or underlined.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.

Article in Journal Paginated by Volume

Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Article in Journal Paginated by Issue

Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(30), 5-13.

Article in a Magazine

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Article in a Newspaper

Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4.

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

Note: Because of issues with html coding, the listings below using brackets contain spaces that are not to be used with your listings. Use a space as normal before the brackets, but do not include a space following the bracket.

Letter to the Editor

Moller, G. (2002, August). Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 287(2), 12.

Review

Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control, by R. A. Wicklund & M. Eckert]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466-467.

Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing.

Reference List: Books

Basic Format for Books

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Note: For "Location," you should always list the city and the state using the two letter postal abbreviation without periods (New York, NY).

Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Edited Book, No Author

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Edited Book with an Author or Authors

Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. K.V. Kukil, (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.

A Translation

Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814).

Note: When you cite a republished work, like the one above, in your text, it should appear with both dates: Laplace (1814/1951).

Edition Other Than the First

Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Note: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp." before the numbers: (pp. 1-21). This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references, except for newspapers.

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.

Multivolume Work

Wiener, P. (Ed.). (1973). Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Scribner's.

Contributors:Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing.

Reference List: Other Print Sources

An Entry in an Encyclopedia

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Work Discussed in a Secondary Source

List the source the work was discussed in:

Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.

NOTE: Give the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al. and you did not read the original work, list the Coltheart et al. reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation:

In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), ...

Dissertation Abstract

Yoshida, Y. (2001). Essays in urban transportation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 7741A.

Dissertation, Published

Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order Number)

Dissertation, Unpublished

Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of Institution, Location.

Government Document

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Report From a Private Organization

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Conference Proceedings

Schnase, J. L., & Cunnius, E. L. (Eds.). (1995). Proceedings from CSCL '95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Contributors:Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing.

Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

Please note: There are no spaces used with brackets in APA. When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Please note, too, that the OWL still includes information about print sources and databases for those still working with these sources.

Article From an Online Periodical

Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A list apart: For people who make websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving

Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs

Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many-but not all-publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document.

Note that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendors name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed." This button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI. Find DOI's from print publications or ones that go to dead links with CrossRef.org's "DOI Resolver," which is displayed in a central location on their home page.

Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000

Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

Article From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require the URL of the journal home page. Remember that one goal of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article; providing the journal home page aids readers in this process.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

Article From a Database

Please note: APA states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time (p. 192). However, the OWL still includes information about databases for those users who need database information.

When referencing a print article obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library), provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work). By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number in parentheses at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required.

For articles that are easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information. Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis. For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages 187-192 of the Publication Manual.

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125.

Abstract

If you only cite an abstract but the full text of the article is also available, cite the online abstract as other online citations, adding "[Abstract]" after the article or source name.

Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: Two prison case studies [Abstract]. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58.

Bossong, G. Ergativity in Basque. Linguistics, 22(3), 341-392.

Newspaper Article

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Electronic Books

Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name.

De Huff, E. W. (n.d.). Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/
taytay.html

Davis, J. (n.d.). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. Available from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-
9780931686108-0

Chapter/Section of a Web document or Online Book Chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine. In Apache HTTP Server Version 1.3 Documentation (Apache modules). Retrieved from http://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/mod/mod_rewrite.html

Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J. S. Bough and G. B. DuBois (Eds.), A century of growth in America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.

NOTE: Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section, not the home page of the Web site.

Online Book Reviews

Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting. (The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal.) In brackets, write "Review of the book" and give the title of the reviewed work. Provide the web address after the words "Retrieved from," if the review is freely available to anyone. If the review comes from a subscription service or database, write "Available from" and provide the information where the review can be purchased.

Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us]. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/27/books/review/Zachareck
-t.html?pagewanted=2

Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce [Review of the books Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce's critics: Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce's messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self]. Modern Fiction Studies, 50(1), 163-173. Available from Project MUSE Web site: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/modern_fiction_studies/toc/
mfs52.1.html

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment target in Parkinson's disease. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 3295214)

Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authors' names). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify (n.d.) if no date is present in the entry.

Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclop├Ždia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism

Online Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies

J├╝rgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/alt_formats/hpb-dgps/
pdf/intactiv/hiv-vih-aids-sida-prison-carceral_e.pdf

Data Sets

Point readers to raw data by providing a Web address (use "Retrieved from") or a general place that houses data sets on the site (use "Available from").

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data)

Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information.

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). [Graph illustration the SORCE Spectral Plot May 8, 2008]. Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from http://lasp.colorado.edu/cgi-bin/ion-p?page=input_data_for_ spectra.ion

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets (e.g. [Interview transcript, Interview audio file]):

Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral History 2 [Interview transcript]. Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Histories Project Web site: http:// www11.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/oral_
histories.htm

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site: http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ501/Hallam/
index.html

Roberts, K. F. (1998). Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://siri.uvm.edu/ppt/40hrenv/index.html

Nonperiodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report

List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information; don't be lazy. If there is a page like http://www.somesite.com/somepage.htm, and somepage.htm doesn't have the information you're looking for, move up the URL to http://www.somesite.com/):

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

 

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

NOTE: When an Internet document is more than one Web page, provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document. Also, if there isn't a date available for the document use (n.d.) for no date.

Computer Software/Downloaded Software

Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.

Ludwig, T. (2002). PsychInquiry [computer software]. New York: Worth.

Software that is downloaded from a Web site should provide the software’s version and year when available.

Hayes, B., Tesar, B., & Zuraw, K. (2003). OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software (Version 2.1) [Software]. Available from http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/otsoft/

E-mail

E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting

Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL where the message is archived (e.g. "Message posted to..., archived at...").

Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25]. Message posted to http://groups.earthlink.com/forum/messages/00025.html

Blog (Weblog) and Video Blog Post

Include the title of the message and the URL. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name.

J Dean. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.spring.org.uk/the1sttransport

 

Psychology Video Blog #3 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqM90eQi5-M

Wikis

Please note that the APA Style Guide to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (like Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects that cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries.

OLPC Peru/Arahuay. (n.d.). Retrieved April 29, 2011 from the OLPC Wiki: http://wiki.laptop. org/go/OLPC_Peru/Arahuay

Audio Podcast

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Bell, T. & Phillips, T. (2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science @ NASA Podcast. Podcast retrieved from http://science.nasa.gov/podcast.htm

Video Podcasts

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7]. Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from http://www.adveeducation.com

Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing.

Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources

Interviews, Email, and Other Personal Communication

No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in your main text only.

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

Motion Picture

Basic reference list format:

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Note: If a movie or video tape is not available in wide distribution, add the following to your citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name, full address and zip code).

A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National Availability

Smith, J. D. (Producer), & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [ Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability

Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writing labs: A history [Motion picture]. (Available from Purdue University Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907)

Television Broadcast or Series Episode

Producer, P. P. (Producer). (Date of broadcast or copyright). Title of broadcast [ Television broadcast or Television series ]. City of origin: Studio or distributor.

Single Episode of a Television Series

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In P. Producer (Producer), Series title. City of origin: Studio or distributor.

Wendy, S. W. (Writer), & Martian, I. R. (Director). (1986). The rising angel and the falling ape [Television series episode]. In D. Dude (Producer), Creatures and monsters. Los Angeles, CA: Belarus Studios.

Television Broadcast

Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly news hour [Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Central Broadcasting Service.

A Television Series

Bellisario, D.L. (Producer). (1992). Exciting action show [Television series]. Hollywood: American Broadcasting Company.

Music Recording

Songwriter, W. W. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).

Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London, England: Big Pig Music Limited.

 

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